2. Overlay aeration system (Over-the-media gas supply)


Poor carbon dioxide removal can lead to particular difficulties in pH-control and to CO2 accumulation in the vessel. This in its turn can affect cell culture behavior, product titer and end-product quality. To avoid this, CO2 produced during cell respiration and metabolism may be removed by supplying a sterile mixture of air and CO2 to the headspace (this results in surface stripping). Mass flow controllers (MFCs) are used to control the percentage of CO2 in the mixture and to maintain pH and/or pCO2.